Dear Parents and Caregivers,

We extend our warmest thanks for the numerous parents and guardians who attended last week’s parent conferences. I was a pleasure to chat about your child’s progress.

Picture re-take day is Monday, November 17.

The government vocabulary quiz will be given on Friday, November 21. Students were given the vocabulary cards last Friday. Students should study these cards to help them understand concepts and skills covered in class.

There will not be classes on Wednesday, November 26 through Sunday, November 30 in observance of the Thanksgiving holiday.

**Balanced Literacy**

Independent Reading (30-35 minutes at the beginning of each day). Differentiated instruction is provided at this time as well as throughout the lessons.

Differentiated Instruction:

Phonemic Awareness: The Skills That They Need To Help Them Succeed! by Michael Heggerty, Ed.D.

Week 11 (Different words will be given each day.)

*Letter Naming:* “The letter is___”; “Sound is___”

*Rhyming:* Teacher says the word. Students offer rhyming words. Can say “Give me 5” to remind students of 5 word limit.

*Onset Fluency:* Teacher reads the nonsense word groups. Student say the onset sound found in each series. Ex. T: zab, zib, zub, S: /z/

*Blending: *Teacher says the individual phonemes. Students listen and then say the whole world. Ex. T: /p-o-n-d/, S: pond

*Identifying Final and Medial Sounds:* Teachers says the word. Students repeat the word and over enunciate the medial sound. Ex. T: rib, S: rIb

*Segmenting:* Teachers says the word whole. Students repeat the word and chop it into phonemes. Ex. T: band, S: band; /b-a-n-d/

Use hand motion for chopping.

*Substituting:* Teachers says the word. Students repeat the word. Teacher says change the /*/ to /*/ and the word is? Ex. T: limit, S: limit, T: change the/lim/ to /hab/ and the word is? S: habit

* Use sounds

*Adding Phonemes:* Teacher says the word. Students repeat the word. Teacher says add /*/ at the beginning and the word is?

* Use sounds

*Deleting Phonemes:* Teacher says the word. Students repeat the word. Teacher says without the /*/ and what is left?

* Use sounds

- Guided writing: teachers circulate the room to assist students

- Guided reading: Students work in small groups under the scaffolding of the teacher or an NSP student from the University of Chicago (Close Reading is included)

- Writing conferences

- Working in pairs

- Allowing extended time

- Using graphic organizers

- Drawing pictures to support writing

- Centers:

- Centers:

1. Listening Center: Author Study of the books by Kevin Henkes

2. Word Study: Building Fry Sight Words (3-4 letter words) Students read, build words with letters, and write words with erasable markers

3. Technology Center:

a. Students practice reading level two-five sight words

b. Students read informational texts about experiments and investigations

c. A.R. on mini-iPads

Building Classroom Community based on CHAMPS A Proactive & Positive Approach to Classroom Management by Randy Sprick, Ph.D. and The Morning Meeting Book by Roxann Kriete

Reading Workshop and Writing Workshop based on A Curriculum Plan for The Reading Workshop and Units of Study in Opinion, Information, and Narrative Writing by Lucy Calkins and Colleagues from The Reading and Writing Project

Morning Meeting (Daily) based on Morning Meeting Ideas by Susan Lattanzi Roser

- Greetings in Vietnamese: “When you say hello, I say Xin chao”

- Sharing: Students share their journal writing entries or something that is meaningful to them.

- Group Activity: “The Fox Went Out on a Chilly Night” from Sing a Song of Poetry by Fountas and Pinnell

Day 1:

Morning meeting

Morning Message:

Buenos Dias Wildcats,

Today is Monday, November 17, 2014. We will explore different ways to initiate rotational motion.

Inquiry Question: How can spin objects be kept in motion?

Share what you think with a classmate.

Reading Workshop

Unit 4–Reading Nonfiction, Reading the World

Part One: Nonfiction Readers Read to Become Smarter about Our World and the Things in It

“Today I want to teach you that nonfiction readers train our mind to pick out topic sentences. Nonfiction readers know that text paragraphs have one special sentence within them that tells us the topic of what that entire paragraph is about.”

- Provide and explain examples to students.

- Students read independently and/or with a partner using strategies they’ve learned.

Interactive Read Aloud

Force And Motion by John Graham

Writing Workshop

Unit Two

Information—Lab Report and Science Book

Session 3: New Wanderings, New Experiments

Share—Interpreting Scientific Results and Developing Conclusions

Select a partner whose results didn’t match those of the earlier experiment, creating a situation that begs for explanation. Then set that partnership up to share the experiment with the class. Explain to the class that when writing the conclusion page, it is important to ask “why?’ and to speculate about the answers. Channel the whole class to do this work to make sense of the experiment the duo just shared. Tell students that scientists often consult outside sources—other scientists’ experiments, other articles and resources—to help them interpret their own results and write their conclusions. Close class by reminding students that their conclusion pages need to reflect that they have been asking why and developing hypotheses to explain what happen.

Students continue to write about their experiments. They work with an assigned partner to coach each other about their writing.

Day 2:

Morning Meeting

Morning Message:

Bonjour Wildcats,

Today is Tuesday, November 18, 2014. Using the analogue and digital clock, we will practice telling time to the nearest half hour.

Inquiry Question: How are analogue and digital clocks alike? How are they different? Share what you think with a classmate.

Reading Workshop

Close Reading: “Breathing Underwater” From Toolkit Texts selected by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis

- Teachers will display the article on the Smart Board

- Teachers will review close reading strategies necessary to answer the following text dependent questions about key ideas:

1. How are humans similar to the animals in the article?

2. How are the animals different? (“I do”, whole class)

Further small group discussion:

What does the author want us to learn as we read the article? Why do you think that? (“We do”, whole class)

- Students will orally read the passage. (“We do”, whole class)

- Teachers will provide individual copies of the passage to the students.

- The students will reread the text dependent questions orally.

- Students will reread with a pencil using the following annotations; question marks, circling important information/ evidence of the answer to the essential question. (“You do”, independent)

- Students read independently and/or with a partner using strategies they’ve learned.

Writing Workshop

Unit Two

Information—Lab Report and Science Book

Session 4: Author Share Scientific Ideas/Conclusions

Minilesson

Connection: Remind students that the previous shared session left them asking why, and channel them to continue speculating explanations for that phenomenon. Coach partners to challenge each other to speak with more clarity. Encourage listeners to try to follow the speakers’ ideas. Accentuate the fact that scientists go through life asking, “Why?” Tell students that this kind of thinking goes into the conclusion of a lab report. Name the question that will guide the inquiry.

Teaching and Active Engagement: Introduce a mentor lab report, and coach writers to research the piece as they read through it, learning how their own writing could go. Scaffold students’ inquiry, collecting their observations on a class anchor chart.

Link: Send students off to revise their lab reports, using all they have learned from the mentor lab report.

Day 3:

Morning Meeting

Morning Message:

Buenos Dias Wildcats,

Today is Wednesday, November 19, 2014. We will examine and discuss how an object spins in the air?

Inquiry Question: How can air start an object spinning? Share your thinking with a classmate.

Reading Workshop

Unit 4–Reading Nonfiction, Reading the World

Part One: Nonfiction Readers Read to Become Smarter about Our World and the Things in It

“Today I want to remind you of some of the ways that readers can retell our nonfiction texts to our partners. We can retell our texts across our fingers, teaching what we have learned. We can also retell by using special transition words like or, and, however, and but.”

- Provide and explain examples to students.

- Students read independently and/or with a partner using strategies they’ve learned.

Interactive Read Aloud

Force And Motion “Floating and Sinking” by John Graham

Writing Workshop

Unit Two

Information—Lab Report and Science Book

Session 4: Author Share Scientific Ideas/Conclusions

Conferring and Small-Group Work—Using Revision Materials and Writing Partnerships to Bring Revision Work to Life

Provide students with an opportunity to talk out their ideas with a partner so that they can practice and grow ideas together. Some students may need additional coaching to talk and get down their ideas. Provide them with prompts such as “Why do you think your hypothesis was correct? One reason is… Another reason is… I think this happens because…”

Students continue to write about their experiments. They work with an assigned partner to coach each other about their writing.

Day 4:

Morning Meeting

Morning Message:

Buenos Dias Wildcats,

Today is Thursday, November 20, 2014. We will discuss how Americans choose their leaders.

Inquiry Question: What are some important characteristics of a good leader? Share what you think with a classmate.

Reading Workshop

Unit 4–Reading Nonfiction, Reading the World

Part One: Nonfiction Readers Read to Become Smarter about Our World and the Things in It

“Today I want to remind you that partners don’t just retell our nonfiction books to each other. We can also ask each other questions to make sure we understand. First, readers teach our partner about what we have learned and then we ask questions like, ‘What does that really mean?’ and ‘Can you give an example of that information?’ ”

- Provide and explain examples to students.

- Students read independently and/or with a partner using strategies they’ve learned.

Interactive Read Aloud

Force And Motion “Balancing Act” by John Graham

Writing Workshop

Unit Two

Information—Lab Report and Science Book

Session 5: Scientists Learn from Other Sources as Well as from Experiments

Minilesson

Connection: Channel students to share what they know about what scientists do, then suggest today you will add one more item to their list. Name the teaching point.

Teaching: Elevate the idea of learning from a lecture by suggesting this occurs at colleges all the time. Explain that you will give your lecture twice and set students up to take notes.

Active Engagement: Ask students to turn and teach each other what they just learned. Return to your lecture, and this time channel students to listen and take notes in ways that prepare them to talk about their experiments in forces and motion. Then get them talking.

Link: Set students up to read more sources and to take notes about new information to then add into their writing.

Students continue to write about their experiments.

Day 5:

Morning Message:

Buenos Dias Wildcats,

Today is Friday, November 21, 2014. We will focus on using new vocabulary in our writing to make it sound like an expert scientific report.

Inquiry Question: Why is it important to have our writing sound like an expert scientific report? Share what you think with a classmate.

Parent Read Aloud

Students take the spelling test.

Students read independently.

Word Study

Spelling Words:

well, large, must, big, even, grew, stew, drew, chew, few, brew, standard, unit, metric, color, shape

The above words will be tested on December 5.

Teacher displays the 16 Fry words, pointing out patterns and strategies from Fountas and Pinnell such as read, copy, cover, write, and check.

Writing Workshop

Unit Two

Information—Lab Report and Science Book

Session 5: Scientists Learn from Other Sources as Well as from Experiments

Conferring and Small-Group Work: Supporting Writer’s Learning Trajectories

“Scientists, you should be using the information you learn from almost every page of your lab report. How many of you have added some of the information you learned into your diagram?—thumbs up. This will make a huge different in your conclusions. You’ll probably end up needing to write big flaps of new information or whole new pages!

“Scientists, whenever you try to learn about a new topic, you should pay attention to the special words that go with that topic. Like if a new kid came to our class and was trying to learn about writing workshop, the kid might pay attention to a word like minilesson or revision. Make sure that you are using some of the new vocabulary in your writing. Think of the important words you learned to make your writing sound like an expert scientific report.”

Students continue to write about their experiments.

**Math**

**Open Response Assessment**

Solving the Open Response Problem

This Open Response requires students to apply skills and concepts from Unit 3 to interpret and apply the subtraction strategy of going through 10.

After a brief introduction, (We do”, whole class) students make sense of another child’s subtraction strategy and apply it to a new problem. (“You do”, independent)

Discussing the Problem

After completing the problem, students discuss their strategies. (“We do”, whole class; small groups)

Teachers ask volunteers to describe Grace’s strategy in their own words. Ask: Why do you think Grace subtracted to get to 10?

Teachers ask volunteers to show Grace’s strategy to solve 14 – 8.

Teachers encourage each volunteer to use the number line. Finally, ask for a review a few other strategies students could use to solve 14 – 8.

Looking Ahead

Math Boxes 3 – 12

Students preview skills and concepts for Unit 4 in journal 1, p. 66. (“We do”, partners, “You do”, independent)

**Lesson 4 – 1 Clocks and Telling Time**

Students tell time to the nearest hour and half hour.

Goals:

- Work with time and money.

- Use tools effectively and make sense of your results.

- Use an appropriate level of precision for your problem.

Vocabulary: estimate, analog clock, minute

1. Warm Up

Math Talk

Mental Math and Fluency

Students count chorally using a class number line. Students may use their individual number lines as support.

Leveled for Differentiation

Level 1: Count by 5s from 5 to 100.

Level 2: Do start-and-stop counting by 5s. Start one group at 5 and count by 5s to 60. Stop. Start another group where the first group left off, counting by 5s to 125.

Level 3: Do start-and-stop counting by 5s, with the first group starting at 350 and ending at 400. Stop. Have another group start where the first group left off, counting by 5s to 450. (“We do”, whole class; small groups)

Daily Routines

Students complete daily routines. (“We do”, whole class)

2. Focus

Math Message

- Teachers display two clock faces as shown on p. 336 in the TG.

Teachers ask: Which clock shows 4:30? Explain to a partner how you know. Use the words minute hand and hour hand. (“We do”, whole class; partners)

Estimating Time with the Hour and Minute Hands

Have volunteers share their responses and explanations.

- Teachers display the demonstration clock set at 4:00. Have the students observe the movement of the hour hand as the minute hand is slowly moved toward 12 to show 5 o’clock. At several points, teachers stop and ask: What do you notice about the hour hand as you move the minute hand?

-Teachers rephrase the time using the following phrases:

- about ____ o’clock

- just before _____ o’clock

- between _____ and _____ o’clock

- almost _____ o’clock

- Teachers point out that telling time is always an estimate – by the time you say the time, it’s already a little later.

- Teachers demonstrate that the minute hand will always point to the 6 for times that are half-past the hour such as 2:30, 3:30, and 7:30.

Ask questions such as the following:

- If you don’t need to know the exact time, which hand is more important?

- Could you tell the time if your clock had only the minute hand?

- What if your clock had only an hour hand? Could you estimate the time?

Explain.

- Which hand helps you tell the time to the nearest minute?

- Teachers read about the clock’s hour hand on p. 106 of My Reference Book.

Reviewing Units of Time

- Students use toolkit clocks to review the clock’s functions and units of time to answer the following questions:

- How many hours does it take for the hour hand to move from the 1 to the 2? From 2 to the 3?

- How long does it take the hour hand to move completely around the clock face?

- How many minutes does it take for the minute hand to move from the 1 to the 2? From the 2 to the 3?

- Students count the minute marks by fives all the way around the clock.

- How many minutes are there in 1 hour?

- Teachers have students watch the hour hand while moving the minute hand from one hour to the next. (“We do”, whole class; small groups)

Reviewing Time to the Hour and the Half Hour

- Students complete journal p. 67. (“You do”, independent; “We do”, partners)

3. Practice

Practicing with Fact Triangles

- Students use both sets of Fact Triangles to practice addition and subtraction facts. (“We do”, partners; small groups)

Math Boxes 4 – 1

- Students complete mixed practice on p. 68 of journal one. (“You do”, independent; “We do”, pairs)

**Lesson 4 – 2 Telling Time to the Nearest 5 Minutes**

Students will tell time to the nearest 5 minutes.

Goals:

- Understand place value.

- Work with time and money.

- Use tools effectively and make sense of your results.

- Model real world situations using graphs, drawings, tables, symbols, numbers, diagrams, and other representations.

- Use clear labels, units, and mathematical language.

Vocabulary: hour hand, minute hand, analog clock, digital clock

1. Warm Up

Mental Math and Fluency

- Teachers will point to the class number line while students count chorally. (“We do”, whole class; small groups)

Leveled for Differentiation

Level 1: Count by 5s from 0 to 30.

Level 2: Count by fives from 45 to 90.

Level 3: Count by 5s from 110 to 160.

Daily Routines

Students complete daily routines. (“We do”, whole class)

2. Focus

Math Message

Students use a copy of the 5-Minute Clock to make individual clocks. (“We do”, pairs; individuals)

Math Talk

Telling Time to the Nearest 5 Minutes

- Students use their clocks to show the time school starts. (“We do”, whole class)

- Students share their determined placement of the hour and minute hands.

- Teachers remind students that they reviewed telling time to the nearest hour and half hour in Lesson 4 – 1. In this lesson, students will be telling time to the nearest five minutes.

- Review students understanding of the minute hand by reading My Reference Book, page 107.

- Teachers use the demonstration clock to start a discussion about the movement of the minute hand. Remind students that as the minute hand travels around the clock, the distance between to adjacent numbers represents 5 minutes. Display 9:00 moving the minute hand slowly forward to 9:20, pausing on each number 1 thru 4 chorally reading the time at each 5 – minute interval. Show additional times counting and pausing at each number with the minute hand. Remind students to watch the hour hand moving slowly to the next number over a period of 60 minutes. (“We do”, whole class; partners)

Reviewing Digital Clocks and Notation

- Teachers display 4:30 on the demonstration clock. What time does the analog clock show? Remind students how time is shown on a digital clock as follows:

Numbers are separated by a colon.

The number on the left of the colon tells the hour.

The number to the right of the colon tells the number of minutes after the hour. (“We do”, whole class)

Telling and Writing Time

- Students work in pairs taking turns setting the hands on their clocks and saying and recording the time on paper or erasable boards. (“We do”, pairs)

- Students complete Math Journal 1, p. 69. (“You do”, individuals)

Assessment Opportunity

- Teachers observe and note students’ ability to complete the problems on p. 69 accurately.

Summarize

- Students share some of their examples from Problem 7 on p. 69. (“We do”, whole class)

3. Practice

- Students play Evens and Odds (“We do”, partners)

Math Boxes 4 – 2

- Students complete journal 1, p. 70. (“You do”, independent; “We do”, pairs)

**Lesson 4 – 3 A.M. and P.M.**

Students tell time using A.M. and P.M.

Goals:

- Understand place value.

- Create mathematical representations using numbers, words, pictures, symbols, gesture, tables, graphs, and concrete objects.

- Make sense of the representations you and other use.

- Make mathematical conjectures and arguments.

Vocabulary: A.M., P.M., 24-hour interval

1. Warm Up

- Students use the Class Number Grid of Class Number Line to find the distance from one number to another. (“We do”, whole class)

Leveled for Differentiation

Level 1: 17 to 37; 15 to 45

Level 2: 83 to 108; 110 to 76

Level 3: 125 to 158; 156 to 183

Daily Routines

- Students complete the daily routines. (“We do”, whole class)

2. Focus

Math Talk

Math Message

Taylor starts school at 9:00 and goes to bed at 9:00. How can this statement be true?

Introducing A.M. and P.M.

- Teachers discuss that there are 24 hours in a day. The first 12 hours of the day (from midnight to noon) are A.M. hours, and the second 12 hours (from noon to midnight) are P.M. hours.

- Teachers use the demonstration clock moving the hands and saying the A.M. hours (12:00 midnight, 1:00 A.M., 2:00 A.M., and so on) and then the P.M. hours (12:00 noon, 1:00 P.M., 2:00 P.M., and so on).

Exploring a 24-Hour Timeline

- Teachers display a horizontal line with arrows on both ends. Explain that a timeline is like a number line on which the intervals indicate time periods. Tell the students that this timeline will show all the hours in one day and is called a 24 – hour timeline. Set the demonstration clock to 12:00 midnight, the start of a new day. Make tick marks at the beginning of the timeline and label them 12, 1, 2, and so on, to 12. Add a bracket above the timeline labeling each 12 hours as A.M. and then the final 12 hours as P.M. (“We do”, whole class)

- Students volunteer to share events that occur during the day, such as getting up for school, beginning the school day, and eating dinner. Each volunteer says a time, including A.M. or P.M. (“We do”, whole class)

Practicing with A.M. and P.M.

- Students draw pictures of events on journal p. 71 that occur at the given times. (“You do, individuals; “We do”, small group)

- Teachers encourage students to refer to the 24-hour time line to help them distinguish between A.M. and P.M.

Assessment Opportunity

- Teachers observe and note students’ drawings on p. 71.

3. Practice

Introducing and Playing Addition Top-It

- Students and teachers read My Reference Book on p. 170 – 172.

- Teachers model a few rounds with a student and show students how to record their number models on the Addition Top – It record Sheet. (“We do”, whole class)

- Students play the game recording the number models to complete the record sheet. (“We do”, pairs, small groups)

Assessment Opportunity

- Teachers observe

What strategies are the students using to determine the sum?

Which students are using the correct comparison symbols on the Addition Top – It Record Sheet?

- Discussion

How did you figure out the sums?

How did you know which comparison symbol to write on the record sheet? (“We do”, whole class)

Math Boxes 4 – 3

- Students complete the mixed practice on journal, p. 72. (“You do”, independent)

**Catch –Up and Game Day Friday**

Playing Addition Top-It

Students and teachers read My Reference Book on p. 170 – 172.

Teachers model a few rounds with a student and show students how to record their number models on the Addition Top – It record Sheet. (“We do”, whole class)

Students play the game recording the number models to complete the record sheet. (“We do”, pairs, small groups)

Playing Salute!

Students play Salute! to practice addition by solving for a missing addend, which is an important strategy for developing fluency with addition and subtraction facts.

Teachers review the directions for “Salute!” on pp. 162 and 163 of My Reference Book. (“I do”, whole class)

Students play in groups of three, taking turns being the dealer using four cards each of 0 – 10. (“We do”, small groups)

Teachers circulate among groups encouraging students to reflect on and discuss strategies for a more efficient round looking for the following strategies:

Counting back by 1s

Counting back in pieces (by numbers larger than 1)

Counting up by 1s

Counting up in pieces

Think addition, especially with a known or easier fact

Making 10

Near doubles

Telling Time

Students work with an assigned partner to take turns practice telling time using plastic analogue clocks.

**Science**

Spinners–Zoomers

Zoomers are traditional toys made from a button and a piece of string. The string is passed through one button hole and back through the other and tied to make a loop. With the button in the middle, the string loop around a person’s thumbs. After the button has been twirled around to put some twist in the string, the string is pulled tight. The string unwinds, causing the button to spin. The momentum of the rotating button winds the string the other way. Pulling the string tight again spins the button in the opposite direction. Once the rhythm is established, the spinning can go on indefinitely.

Inquiry Question: How can spinning objects be kept in motion?

Investigation Summary

Students use disks and a length of string to make zoomers.

Science Content

- There are different ways to initiate rotational motion.

- The motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling.

- Tops and zoomers both spin, but in different ways.

Teacher Observation

- Check for understanding.

Guiding the Investigation

- Review spinning.

- Introduce zoomers.

- Students construct zoomers.

- Get the zoomers going.

- Students use round disks and squares in the kit to make additional zoomers.

- Visit students as they work.

Interactive Read Loud: Balance and Motion “Move It, But Don’t Touch It” by Delta Education

Adding to the content chart entries:

- How are tops and zoomers the same?

- How do you start the motion of tops and zoomers?

- How can you change the spinning motion of a zoomer?

Lab Observation:

- Students write to explain the following question:

How can spinning objects be kept in motion?

Spinners–Twirlers

Twirlers spin as they fall through the air. You may have seen seeds falling from maple trees in late summer. Maple seeds are fitted with little wings that interact with air to rotate rapidly, producing a wonderful visual effect. Spinning slows the fall of the seed, so that a breeze can carry the seed to a location some distance from the parent tree where it will have a better chance to produce a new tree. The effectiveness of a twirler, whether it is a seed or a toy, is influenced by a number of variables – the length of the wings, the amount of twist in the wings, the stiffness of the wings, the weight and length of the body, and so forth. When the twirler is perfectly balanced, it spins smoothly, descends slowly, and lands softly.

Inquiry Question: How can air start an object spinning?

Investigation Summary

Students make twirlers (flying spinners) that rotate by air resistance, first modifying soda straws with wings, and then making twirly birds from paper and paper clips.

Science Content

- Variations in design can influence the rotational motion of spinning objects.

- Air resistance can act as the force that initiates rotational motion.

Teacher Observation

- Check to see how well students compare spinners and whether they know that a force is needed to start the motion.

Guiding the Investigation

- Review spinning.

- Set the challenge.

- Distribute straws

- Split one end of the straw.

- Suggest wings.

- Assemble the twirlers.

- Test the twirlers.

- Teacher visits students as they work.

**Social Studies **

Government

Lesson 3: Choosing Leaders

Interactive Read Aloud: Read and discuss the chapter “Choosing Leaders”.

Main Idea: Americans choose their leaders.

Objectives:

- Recognize the importance of leaders throughout history.

- Discuss what makes a good leader.

- Identify ways that public officials are selected, including election and appointment to office.

Vocabulary: election, vote, appoint

Link History with Civic and Government: Ask students to name leaders from long ago whom they have learned about through stories, books, or movies. Encourage students to discuss with partners their impressions of the leaders and their ideas about what it means to be a leader. Point out that just as each person is different, each leader has a different way of leading. Some leaders of long ago were wise; others were careless or cruel. Many years ago, some leaders had the power of life and death over their people. These leaders were looked upon as gods. Whatever they decided became law.

Skill: Making a Choice by Voting

Vocabulary: majority rule

- Remind students that to vote means to make a choice. Explain that in most elections people are choosing the best person to do a specific job. There are several ways to decide who will do the best job. First, a voter should consider the qualities a person would need to do the job. Next, the voter should learn about the person’s qualifications for the job. Reading newspapers, listening to speeches, and watching television news programs are a few ways to learn more about how well each candidate is prepared for the job.

- Remind students about our election for student council. We read the candidates’ campaign posters and listened to their speeches, but we could vote for only two students.

- Ask students to pretend that our classroom is a community that needs a new mayor. Have each table grouping nominate a candidate and prepare that person to give a speech. We make ballots with the candidates’ names on them, cast our ballots for a candidate and count the ballots to determine the winner.

Vocabulary quiz

- government: a group of citizens who run a community

- law: a rule that people of a community must follow

- tax: money paid to the government that is used to pay for services

- vote: a choice that gets counted

- patriotism: a feeling of pride that people have for their country

- consequence: something that happens because of what a person does

- brotherhood: friendship or cooperation

- mayor: a leader of our city

- governor: a leader of our state

Lesson 4: Our State Government

Objectives:

- Compare the roles of mayor and governor.

- Describe state government.

- Identify some responsibilities of state government.

Vocabulary: governor, legislature, property

Civics and Government:

Explain to students that the governor of the state is elected by the voters of that state, usually for a four-year term. Voters in most states elect other state leaders such as lieutenant governor (governor’s assistant), treasurer (in charge of the state’s money), and attorney general (in charge of state’s laws). Point out that, as with a mayor, a governor has the power to appoint other state officials. Students complete a graphic organizer (word web) to organize information about state government as we read the chapter.

- Explain to students that a state legislature can impose taxes and decide how the state government will spend its money. Members of a state legislature are elected by that state’s voters.

Thank you for your support.

Anh Tuan Hoang and LuAnn Lawson